Effects Of Tobacco Smoke On Human Health
When we breathe through our nose, most irritant particles are filtered off by the hairs in our nose or trapped in the mucus.
But when they enter our lungs, it would cause violent coughing or sneezing reaction to expel the foreign particles.
Chemical in tabocco smoke:
Nicotine – addictive drug, causes the release of the hormone adrenaline, makes blood clot easily.
Effects: increases in heartbeat and blood pressure, increased risk of blood clot in blood vessels.
Carbon Monoxide – combines with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin which reduces oxygen transport efficiency of red blood cells, increases the rate of fatty deposits on the inner arterial wall, damages the lining of blood vessels.
Effects: death if concentrations in the air are increased by 1%, increased risk of atherosclerosis, increased risk of blood clotting in the arteries.
Tar – contains cancer-causing (carinogenic) chemicals which induce uncontrolled cell division of the epithelium, paralyses cilia lining the air passages.
Effects: blockage in the air sacs and reduction in gas exchange efficiency, dust particles trapped in the mucus lining the airways cannot be removed.
Irritants (e.g. hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, formaldehyde) – paralyses cilia lining the air passages.
Effect: increased risk of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Signs of chronic bronchitis:
! The epithelium lining the airways, bronchi becomes inflamed
! Excessive mucus is secreted by the epithelium
! The cilia on the epithelium are paralysed. Mucus and dust cannot be removed.
! The airways become blocked, making breathing difficult.
! The person has to cough persistently to clear his airways in order to breathe. This increases the risk of getting his lung infections.
Signs of emphysema:
! Violent coughing breaks the partition walls between air sacs
! The surface area for gaseous exchange decreases
! The lungs become inflated with air
! The lung lose their elasticity
! Breathing becomes difficult. The person wheezes and suffers severe breathlessness.
! The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the risk of getting lung cancer.
! Cancer is an uncontrolled division of cells producing outgrowths or lumps of tissues.
! Apart from lung cancer, smoking also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, pancreas, kidneys and urinary bladder.